Multiple Intelligence

Traditionally, intelligence has been thought of and treated as one single thing. The idea of multiple intelligences was introduced by Howard Gardner in 1983. In his book titled 'Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences,' Gardner proposed that instead of there being one general intelligence, there are seven different kinds of intelligence. In 1999, Gardner added an additional intelligence to his list. Each of us has our own unique combination of the intelligences. For example, a writer may be skilled at using language (linguistic intelligence), but have difficulty with using his body or athletics (bodily/kinesthetic intelligence).

They are:

1. Intrapersonal intelligence: includes understanding one's innermost feelings.
2. Interpersonal intelligence: includes the ability to interact with others effectively.
3. Logical/mathematical intelligence: includes reasoning, conceptual and abstract thinking.
4. Visual/spatial intelligence: includes awareness of the environment and the ability to visualize.
5. Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence: includes the ability to use the body effectively.
6. Verbal-Linguistic intelligence: includes effective usage of words.
7. Musical intelligence: includes identifying rhythms and sounds.
8. Naturalistic intelligence: includes knowledge about nature, plants, and your surroundings.


Intrapersonal Intelligence

When new information, ideas and surroundings present challenges, a learner with strong intrapersonal intelligence may find comfort and security within themselves. Children/people with strong Intrapersonal intelligence have the ability to understand one's own emotions, goals and motivations. People who have the remarkable ability to understand themselves, their thoughts, and their emotions and are capable of using this knowledge to plan their lives possess intra-personal intelligence. While intra-personal intelligence does involve self-appreciation, it also comprises a wider understanding of the human condition. Examples of people with evident intra-personal intelligence include philosophers, spiritual leaders, writers, and psychologists and some historical examples include Eleanor Roosevelt and Sigmund Freud.

Tips:Maintaining some ‘quiet time’ for self reflection helps this process. You may start the class a quiet time of 1 or 2 minutes. This allows students a private minute to collect their thoughts after hustling between classes and concentrate better on the work at hand.


Interpersonal-Social Intelligence

Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. It involves effective communication, to understand the sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others, and the ability to entertain multiple perspectives. Children with strong Interpersonal intelligence work effectively in a group and understand and recognize the goals, motivations and intentions of others. It's an ability we all need, but is especially important for teachers, social workers, actors, and politicians or anyone who require to deal with other people. Students with this intelligence thrive in cooperative, group work situations and are skilled at communicating, mediating and negotiating. Professionals in this intelligence may be teachers, therapists, and salespeople. What do Aristotle, Helen Keller, and Abraham Lincoln all have in common? They all have interpersonal intelligence.Some historical examples include Mohandas Gandhi, Mother Theresa and Ronald Reagan.


Logical-Mathematics Intelligence

Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate, quantify, consider propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations. It enables us to perceive relationships and connections and to use abstract, symbolic thought; sequential reasoning skills; and inductive and deductive thinking patterns. Children with strong Math-Logical intelligence has the ability to reason deductively and can recognize and manipulate abstract patterns or relationships. Students who have strong problem-solving and reasoning skills will excel in this intelligence. Adults with this intelligence will work as scientists, mathematicians, computer programmers, lawyers or accountants.

Some historical examples include Albert Einstein, James Watson, Nicolae Tesla, and Alexander Graham Bell.


Visual-Spatial Intelligence

Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions. Core capacities include mental imagery, spatial reasoning, image manipulation, graphic and artistic skills, and an active imagination. Sailors, pilots, sculptors, painters, and architects all exhibit spatial intelligence. Children with Spatial intelligence have the ability to create visual-spatial representations and can transfer them mentally or concretely and also very creative. Students who exhibit this intelligence need a mental or physical "picture" to understand the information being presented.Young adults with this kind of intelligence may be fascinated with mazes or jigsaw puzzles, or spend free time drawing or daydreaming. Professionals in this intelligence are typically graphic artists, architects, cartographers and sculptors.

Some historical examples include Frank Lloyd Wright, Pablo Picasso, and Bobby Fischer.


Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence

This intelligence involves capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills (your body i.e hands, fingers and arms) to make something or put on some kind of production. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing and the perfection of skills through mind–body union. Children with strong Bodily-Kinaesthetic intelligence gravitate towards athletics; however, they also may use their bodies to solve problems, or convey ideas and emotions. Students with BK intelligence will be good at physical activities, have good hand-eye coordination and may have a tendency to move around a lot while expressing them. Professionals using BK intelligence will include athletes, surgeons, dancers and even inventors.

Some historical examples include Sachin Tendulkar,Lionel Messi, Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Andre Agassi.


Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence

Linguistic intelligence is the ability to think in words and to use language to express and appreciate complex meanings. Linguistic intelligence allows us to understand the order and meaning of words and to apply meta-linguistic skills to reflect on our use of language. Linguistic intelligence is the most widely shared human competence and is evident in poets, novelists, journalists, and effective public speakers. Young adults with this kind of intelligence enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing crossword puzzles. The Writer/Speaker Children with strong Verbal-Linguistic intelligence will have a propensity to produce language and sensitivity to the nuances, order and rhythm of words. These students love to read, write and tell stories. They have good memories for names, places, dates and trivia. Professionals with strong VL intelligence will be writers, public speakers, teachers, and actors.

Some historical examples include Abraham Lincoln, T.S. Elliot and Charlton Heston.


Musical-Rthymic Intelligence

Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone. This intelligence enables us to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music, as demonstrated by composers, conductors, musicians, vocalist, and sensitive listeners. Interestingly, there is often an affective connection between music and the emotions; and mathematical and musical intelligences may share common thinking processes. Children with strong Musical intelligence have great sensitivity to the rhythm of sounds (e.g. pitch, timbre, composition). Young adults with this kind of intelligence are usually singing or drumming to themselves. They are usually quite aware of sounds others may miss. Students strong in this intelligence will enjoy listening to music and may ultimately work as singers, songwriters, composers, or even music teachers.

Some historical examples includeAR Rahman, Ludwig van Beethoven, J.S. Bach, and Mozart.


Naturalistic-Physical Intelligence

Linguistic intelligence is the ability to think in words and to use language to express yourself. Linguistic intelligence allows us to understand the order and meaning of words and to apply meta-linguistic skills to reflect on our use of language. Linguistic intelligence is the most widely found in poets, novelists, journalists and effective public speakers. Children with strong focus in this intelligence will exhibit an affinity for all things nature. These students will enjoy and thrive when learning about nature topics, such as flora and fauna. Some professions with focus on this intelligence will include forest rangers, botanists, farmers and biologists.

Some Historical examples include Charles Darwin, John Muir etc.